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Knowledge Center

Find here the latest publications applicable to plasmonics, communications and general research. Further our articles, tutorial and frequently asked questions.

What is the maximum optical input power?

This depends on the application and can go as high as 10 dBm. For specific requirements contact us.

What is the bandwidth limitation of your products?

Our packaged Mach-Zender Modulators offer a 3-dB bandwidth of over 110 GHz. Our chip level modulators have shown a record high 3-dB frequency response up to 500 GHz.

What fiber-to-fiber losses can be expected?

Depending on what application you are aiming for, the fiber-to-fiber losses are in the range between 11 dB and 18 dB. Should you require lower insertion losses, our development team is happy to tailor a solution for you.

How much of the fiber-to-fiber losses comes from the plasmonic propagation losses?

The plasmonic propagation losses make up slightly more than half of the total losses.

What technology enables your improved performance?

Our modulators are based on the plasmonic-organic-hybrid (POH) platform. This combines plasmonic wave guiding with organic second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. In plasmonics, light is guided as a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) at metal-insulator interfaces. This enables light confinement well below the diffraction limit, which results in an enhanced light-matter interaction.

What advantage is your product offering compared to established technologies?

The POH platform combines advantages from organic NLO materials and plasmonic slot waveguides. This means, our modulators offer linear phase modulation, ultrafast speed, high nonlinearities, subdiffraction confinement of light, enhanced light-matter interaction leading to voltage-length products one order of magnitude smaller than photonics, small RC time constants, and reduced plasmonic losses.

Where are your modulators fabricated?

Our modulators are designed, fabricated, assembled and tested in Switzerland.

What products do you offer?

On module level, we offer a packaged MZM. On chip level, or pigtailed, we offer a large palette of modulator types: Phase modulators, im-/balanced MZM and IQ modulators. Feel free to contact us for specific ideas.

How much does one Polariton MZM module cost?

As we tailor very specific products to your demand, there is no fixed price. Our sales team is always happy to discuss your needs and give you more details.

Do you offer accompanying services?

We do offer on-site support service. We are also available for demonstrations. Furthermore, our team of experienced experts in optical communication offers their help on a consulting level.

Is your product compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS)?


The Bridge between Electronics and Optics (eng)

Plasmonics describes a technology, which compresses electromagnetic fields into nanoscopic structures, thus enabling a new generation of efficient and fast computer chips. In early 2019, three ETH researchers decided to found the spin-off public company Polariton Technologies with the vision of molding plasmonics into a market-ready technology.

Die Brücke zwischen Elektronik und Optik (deu)

Plasmonik ist eine Technologie, die elektromagnetische Felder in nanoskopische Strukturen zwängt und somit eine neue Generation von effizienten und schnellen Computerchips ermöglicht. Anfang 2019 entschieden sich drei ETH-Forschende, das Spin-off Polariton Technologies AG zu gründen, mit der Vision, die Plasmonik zu einer marktreifen Technologie zu formen.

How to Characterize Extinction Ratio and Operating Points

Extinction ratio (ER) describes the difference between the on- and off-state of the MZM. The right plot shows the intensity and amplitude transfer function of a MZM in push-pull mode.

Ultrahigh Symbol and Net-Bit Rate with IM/DD​

A widely employed communication scheme is the intensity-modulation and direct detection (IM/DD), which is a low-complexity and low-cost solution. From the transmitter side, the intensity of an optical signal is transmitted through an optical fiber link. On the receiver side, the signal is detected by a photodiode (PD).

How to Measure 𝑉π at High Frequencies

The voltage 𝑉π needed for a phase shift of π is an important figure of merit for the performance of an optical modulator. One method to measure 𝑉π is by analyzing the optical spectrum of the modulated. This way, one can determine 𝑉π from low to high frequencies characterizing a modulator’s bandwidth and modulation speed.

How to Characterize Insertion Loss

Insertion loss (IL) is the ratio between optical input power and optical output power of a device under test (DUT). For a modulator it is of interest to measure the IL for different wavelengths to characterize its optical broadband behavior.

How to Measure 𝑉π Employing Overmodulation

The voltage 𝑉π needed for a phase shift of π is an important figure of merit for the performance of an optical modulator. One method to measure 𝑉_π for a Mach-Zehnder modulator is through low radio frequencies giving a close approximation for the value at DC. This is a leaflet to help you become more knowledgeable about the concept of 𝑉π and how to measure it.


ETH Zürich and Polariton Technologies Ltd., in an effort to collaborate and share knowledge to the world, joins forces and releases LabExT (short for Laboratory Experiment Tool). LabExT is a software environment for quick and easy automated testing of Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs).
The tool is free, written in Python 3.8 and uses the I/O API VISA through pyvisa. We invite you to collaborate as well and spread the word about LabExT!

Visit the GitHub repo of the project: 
Or checkout the online documentation at
See the full explanatory video: Youtube