Reduced Equalization Needs of 100 GHz Bandwidth Plasmonic Modulators

Reduced Equalization Needs of 100 GHz Bandwidth Plasmonic Modulators


Baeuerle, Benedikt, et al. “Reduced equalization needs of 100 GHz bandwidth plasmonic modulators.” Journal of Lightwave Technology 37.9 (2019): 2050-2057.

Abstract:

As bit rates of optical interconnects increase, a large amount of complicated signal conditioning is needed to compensate for the insufficient bandwidth of current modulators. In this paper, we evaluate the reduced equalization requirements of high-bandwidth P. modulators in short-reach transmission experiments. It is shown that transmission of 100 Gbit/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and 112 Gbit/s pulse-amplitude modulation-4 over 1 km and 2 km distance is possible without any receiver equalization. At higher bit-rates, such as 120 Gbit/s NRZ, data transmission is demonstrated over 500 m with reduced receiver equalization requirements. Transmission up to 200 Gbit/s over 1 km is also shown with more complex receiver equalization. The reduced complexity of the receiver digital signal processing is attributed to a flat frequency response of at least 108 GHz of the plasmonic modulators. All single wavelength transmissions have been performed at 1540 nm in standard single mode fiber.

Reduced Equalization Needs of 100 GHz Bandwidth Plasmonic Modulators

Reduced Equalization Needs of 100 GHz Bandwidth Plasmonic Modulators

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Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre wireless link

Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre–wireless link


Salamin, Yannick, et al. “Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre–wireless link.” Nature photonics 12.12 (2018): 749-753.


Abstract:

To cope with the high bandwidth requirements of wireless applications1, carrier frequencies are shifting towards the millimetre-wave and terahertz bands. Conversely, data is normally transported to remote wireless antennas by optical fibres.

Therefore, full transparency and flexibility to switch between optical and wireless domains would be desirable. Here, we demonstrate a direct wireless-to-optical receiver in a transparent optical link. We successfully transmit 20 and 10 Gbit s−1 over wireless distances of 1 and 5 m, respectively, at a carrier frequency of 60 GHz.

Key to the breakthrough is a plasmonic mixer directly mapping the wireless information onto optical signals. The plasmonic scheme with its subwavelength feature and pronounced field confinement provides a built-in field enhancement of up to 90,000 over the incident field in an ultra-compact and complementary metal-oxide–semiconductor compatible structure. The plasmonic mixer is not limited by electronic speed and thus compatible with future terahertz technologies.

Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre wireless link

Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre–wireless link

Deploying the fibre-to-the-home can be costly. One possible scenario to reduce the cost, while still providing high-capacity connectivity for the end user, is to use virtual fibres (red beams) for the last few metres. Here, optical fibres (yellow lines) are deployed to the residential area either underground or aboveground using existing cable platforms. Lamp posts located close to the houses could host optical-to-wireless converters for the downstream data (red dashed arrow) and wireless-to-optical converters (plasmonic mixer) for the upstream data (red arrow). A direct converter could very simply and cost efficiently map the wireless signal onto a common laser signal, which then can be routed back to the central office. PD, photodiode; c.w., continuous wave.

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500 GHz plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics

500 GHz plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics



Broadband electro-optic intensity modulators are essential to convert electrical signals to the optical domain. The growing interest in terahertz wireless applications demands modulators with frequency responses to the sub-terahertz range, high power handling, and very low nonlinear distortions, simultaneously. However, a modulator with all those characteristics has not been demonstrated to date. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that plasmonic modulators do not trade-off any performance parameter, featuring—at the same time—a short length of tens of micrometers, record-high flat frequency response beyond 500 GHz, high power handling, and high linearity, and we use them to create a sub-terahertz radio-over-fiber analog optical link.
 
These devices have the potential to become a new tool in the general field of microwave photonics, making the sub-terahertz range accessible to, e.g., 5G wireless communications, antenna remoting, Internet of Things, sensing, and more.

500 GHz plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics

500 GHz plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics

FIG. 1. (a) A THz wireless communication scenario. (b) At the remote antenna unit (RAU), THz wireless signals are received by an antenna and converted to the optical domain to be transported over a radio-over-fiber analog link. A modulator with sub-THz bandwidth, high linearity, and high-power handling is needed to encode the THz signal onto an optical carrier with high fidelity. Inset: (b1) micrograph of a plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator with a plasmonic phase modulator in each arm; (b2) image of the 120 nm-wide, 20 μm-long phase modulator slot waveguide

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Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator 110 GHz C-Band

Features

  • C-band operation
  • 3 dB electro-optical bandwidth >110 GHz
  • Lumped, low-capacitance RF design
  • Compact form factor

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Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array

Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array


Koch, Ueli, et al. “Ultra-compact terabit plasmonic modulator array.” Journal of Lightwave Technology 37.5 (2019): 1484-1491.


Abstract:

A new plasmonic transmitter solution offering 0.8 Tbit/s on an ultra-compact 90 μm × 5.5 μm footprint is introduced. It comprises a densely arranged four-channel plasmonic phase modulator array that directly interconnects an optical fiber array. Each plasmonic modulator features high-index grating couplers-for direct and efficient conversion from a fiber mode to a plasmonic slot mode and vice versa-and a plasmonic waveguide-for efficient high-speed modulation. The individual devices achieve data rates of 200 Gbit/s with a symbol rate of 100 GBd.
 
Electrical and optical crosstalk between neighboring modulators were found to have no significant influence on the data modulation experiment. The modulator array has been tested in a 100 GBd experiment with signals at a single wavelength (mimicking a space division multiplexing scheme) and at different wavelengths (mimicking a wavelength division multiplexing experiment).

Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array

Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array

Fig. 2.

Plasmonic phase modulator concept for a single device. (a) 3-dimensional rendering of the plasmonic phase modulator consisting of high-index silicon grating couplers (dark blue), a gold plasmonic slot waveguide (gold) and the cores of an optical fiber array (grey). The inset shows the facet of the fiber array. Neighboring cores with a 12 µm pitch were used to couple light into and out of the modulator. (b) Cross-section along the device showing the grating coupler geometry and schematic of the vertically incident fiber mode that is converted to a horizontally propagating plasmonic mode. (c) Cross-section across the plasmonic slot waveguide which is filled by a nonlinear organic electro-optic material (purple). In this configuration, light and electrical signal are both confined to the plasmonic slot leading to strong field enhancement, high field overlap and therefore strongest light-matter interaction.

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Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption

Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption


Heni, Wolfgang, et al. “Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption.” Nature communications 10.1 (2019): 1-8.


Abstract:

Coherent optical communications provides the largest data transmission capacity with the highest spectral efficiency and therefore has a remarkable potential to satisfy today’s ever-growing bandwidth demands. It relies on so-called in-phase/quadrature (IQ) electro-optic modulators that encode information on both the amplitude and the phase of light. Ideally, such IQ modulators should offer energy-efficient operation and a most compact footprint, which would allow high-density integration and high spatial parallelism. Here, we present compact IQ modulators with an active section occupying a footprint of 4 × 25 µm × 3 µm, fabricated on the silicon platform and operated with sub-1-V driving electronics.

The devices exhibit low electrical energy consumptions of only 0.07 fJ bit−1 at 50 Gbit s−1, 0.3 fJ bit−1 at 200 Gbit s−1, and 2 fJ bit−1 at 400 Gbit s−1. Such IQ modulators may pave the way for application of IQ modulators in long-haul and short-haul communications alike.

Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption

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