Hello dear visitor, thank you for visiting our Polariton Knowledge Center.
The purpose of this section is to shed light into the new and exciting Plasmonics technology and industry. Polariton’s product is based on this technology and with more than 8 years of experience we have a lot to share.
Here you can find interesting new papers, exclusive videos and webinars.
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Koefpli, Stefan et al. “>500 GHz Bandwidth Graphene Photodetector Enabling Highest-Capacity Plasmonic-to-Plasmonic Links.” ECOC 2022
Habegger, Patrick et al. “Plasmonic 100-GHz Electro-Optic Modulators for Cryogenic Applications” ECOC 2022
Heni, Wolfgang et al. “Plasmonic PICs — Terabit Modulation on the Micrometer Scale” ECOC 2022
Haffner, Christian, et al. “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale.” Nature Photonics 9.8 (2015): 525-528.
Haffner, Christian, et al. “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale.” Proceedings of the IEEE 104.12 (2016): 2362-2379.
Ayata, Masafumi, et al. “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer.” Science 358.6363 (2017): 630-632.
Hössbacher, Claudia, et al. “Plasmonic modulator with> 170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ.” Optics Express 25.3 (2017): 1762-1768.
Baeuerle, Benedikt, et al. “Reduced equalization needs of 100 GHz bandwidth plasmonic modulators.” Journal of Lightwave Technology 37.9 (2019): 2050-2057.
Salamin, Yannick, et al. “Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre–wireless link.” Nature photonics 12.12 (2018): 749-753.
Burla, Maurizio, et al. “500 GHz plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics.” Apl Photonics 4.5 (2019): 056106.
Koch, Ueli, et al. “Ultra-compact terabit plasmonic modulator array.” Journal of Lightwave Technology 37.5 (2019): 1484-1491.
Heni, Wolfgang, et al. “Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption.” Nature communications 10.1 (2019): 1-8.
Baeuerle, Benedikt, et al. “Low-Power data center transponders enabled by Micrometer-scale plasmonic modulators.” Optical Fiber Communication Conference. Optical Society of America, 2020.
Horst, Yannik, et al. “Transparent optical-THz-optical Link transmission over 5/115 m at 240/190 Gbit/s enabled by plasmonics.” 2021 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC). IEEE, 2021.
Baeuerle, Benedikt, et al. “100 GBd IM/DD transmission over 14 km SMF in the C-band enabled by a plasmonic SSB MZM.” Optics Express 28.6 (2020): 8601-8608.
Heni, Wolfgang, et al. “Ultra-high-speed 2: 1 digital selector and plasmonic modulator IM/DD transmitter operating at 222 GBaud for intra-datacenter applications.” Journal of Lightwave Technology 38.9 (2020): 2734-2739.
Xu, Huajun, et al. “Design and synthesis of chromophores with enhanced electro-optic activities in both bulk and plasmonic–organic hybrid devices.” Materials Horizons (2022).
This depends on the application and can go as high as 10 dBm. For specific requirements contact us.
Our packaged Mach-Zender Modulators offer a 3-dB bandwidth of over 110 GHz. Our chip level modulators have shown a record high 3-dB frequency response up to 500 GHz.
Depending on what application you are aiming for, the fiber-to-fiber losses are in the range between 11 dB and 18 dB. Should you require lower insertion losses, our development team is happy to tailor a solution for you.
The plasmonic propagation losses make up slightly more than half of the total losses.
Our modulators are based on the plasmonic-organic-hybrid (POH) platform. This combines plasmonic wave guiding with organic second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. In plasmonics, light is guided as a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) at metal-insulator interfaces. This enables light confinement well below the diffraction limit, which results in an enhanced light-matter interaction.
The POH platform combines advantages from organic NLO materials and plasmonic slot waveguides. This means, our modulators offer linear phase modulation, ultrafast speed, high nonlinearities, subdiffraction confinement of light, enhanced light-matter interaction leading to voltage-length products one order of magnitude smaller than photonics, small RC time constants, and reduced plasmonic losses.
Our modulators are designed, fabricated, assembled and tested in Switzerland.
On module level, we offer a packaged MZM. On chip level, or pigtailed, we offer a large palette of modulator types: Phase modulators, im-/balanced MZM and IQ modulators. Feel free to contact us for specific ideas.
As we tailor very specific products to your demand, there is no fixed price. Our sales team is always happy to discuss your needs and give you more details.
We do offer on-site support service. We are also available for demonstrations. Furthermore, our team of experienced experts in optical communication offers their help on a consulting level.
A widely employed communication scheme is the intensity-modulation and direct detection (IM/DD), which is a low-complexity and low-cost solution. From the transmitter side, the intensity of an optical signal is transmitted through an optical fiber link. On the receiver side, the signal is detected by a photodiode (PD).
The voltage 𝑉π needed for a phase shift of π is an important figure of merit for the performance of an optical modulator. One method to measure 𝑉π is by analyzing the optical spectrum of the modulated. This way, one can determine 𝑉π from low to high frequencies characterizing a modulator’s bandwidth and modulation speed.
Insertion loss (IL) is the ratio between optical input power and optical output power of a device under test (DUT). For a modulator it is of interest to measure the IL for different wavelengths to characterize its optical broadband behavior.
The voltage 𝑉π needed for a phase shift of π is an important figure of merit for the performance of an optical modulator. One method to measure 𝑉_π for a Mach-Zehnder modulator is through low radio frequencies giving a close approximation for the value at DC. This is a leaflet to help you become more knowledgeable about the concept of 𝑉π and how to measure it.
ETH Zürich and Polariton Technologies Ltd., in an effort to collaborate and share knowledge to the world, joins forces and releases LabExT (short for Laboratory Experiment Tool). LabExT is a software environment for quick and easy automated testing of Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs).
The tool is free, written in Python 3.8 and uses the I/O API VISA through pyvisa. We invite you to collaborate as well and spread the word about LabExT!