Knowledge Center

Knowledge center

Hello dear visitor, thank you for visiting our Polariton Knowledge Center.

The purpose of this section is to shed light into the new and exciting Plasmonics technology and industry. Polariton’s product is based on this technology and with more than 8 years of experience we have a lot to share.

Here you can find interesting new papers, exclusive videos and webinars.

If you want to connect with us directly, please subscribe to our exclusive Sneak Peek.

See you there!

  • All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale

    Haffner, Christian, et al. “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale.” Nature Photonics 9.8 (2015): 525-528.

    Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale

    Haffner, Christian, et al. “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale.” Proceedings of the IEEE 104.12 (2016): 2362-2379.

    High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer

    Ayata, Masafumi, et al. “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer.” Science 358.6363 (2017): 630-632.

    Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ

    Hössbacher, Claudia, et al. “Plasmonic modulator with> 170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ.” Optics Express 25.3 (2017): 1762-1768.

    Reduced Equalization Needs of 100 GHz Bandwidth Plasmonic Modulators

    Baeuerle, Benedikt, et al. “Reduced equalization needs of 100 GHz bandwidth plasmonic modulators.” Journal of Lightwave Technology 37.9 (2019): 2050-2057.

    Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre wireless link

    Salamin, Yannick, et al. “Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre–wireless link.” Nature photonics 12.12 (2018): 749-753.

    500 GHz plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics

    Burla, Maurizio, et al. “500 GHz plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics.” Apl Photonics 4.5 (2019): 056106.

    Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array

    Koch, Ueli, et al. “Ultra-compact terabit plasmonic modulator array.” Journal of Lightwave Technology 37.5 (2019): 1484-1491.

    Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption

    Heni, Wolfgang, et al. “Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption.” Nature communications 10.1 (2019): 1-8.

    Low-Power Data Center Transponders Enabled by Micrometer-scale Plasmonic Modulators

    Baeuerle, Benedikt, et al. “Low-Power data center transponders enabled by Micrometer-scale plasmonic modulators.” Optical Fiber Communication Conference. Optical Society of America, 2020.

    Transparent Optical-THz-Optical Link Transmission over 5/115 m at 240/190 Gbit/s Enabled by Plasmonics

    Horst, Yannik, et al. “Transparent optical-THz-optical Link transmission over 5/115 m at 240/190 Gbit/s enabled by plasmonics.” 2021 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC). IEEE, 2021.

    100 GBd IM/DD transmission over 14 km SMF in the C-band enabled by a plasmonic SSB MZM

    Baeuerle, Benedikt, et al. “100 GBd IM/DD transmission over 14 km SMF in the C-band enabled by a plasmonic SSB MZM.” Optics Express 28.6 (2020): 8601-8608.

    Ultra-High-Speed 2:1 Digital Selector and Plasmonic Modulator IM/DD Transmitter Operating at 222 GBaud for Intra-Datacenter Applications

    Heni, Wolfgang, et al. “Ultra-high-speed 2: 1 digital selector and plasmonic modulator IM/DD transmitter operating at 222 GBaud for intra-datacenter applications.” Journal of Lightwave Technology 38.9 (2020): 2734-2739.

    Design and synthesis of chromophores with enhanced electro-optic activities in both bulk and plasmonic–organic hybrid devices

    Xu, Huajun, et al. “Design and synthesis of chromophores with enhanced electro-optic activities in both bulk and plasmonic–organic hybrid devices.” Materials Horizons (2022).

  • What is the maximum optical input power?

    This depends on the application and can go as high as 10 dBm. For specific requirements contact us.

    What is the bandwidth limitation of your products?

    Our packaged Mach-Zender Modulators offer a 3-dB bandwidth of over 110 GHz. Our chip level modulators have shown a record high 3-dB frequency response up to 500 GHz.

    What fiber-to-fiber losses can be expected?

    Depending on what application you are aiming for, the fiber-to-fiber losses are in the range between 11 dB and 18 dB. Should you require lower insertion losses, our development team is happy to tailor a solution for you.

    How much of the fiber-to-fiber losses comes from the plasmonic propagation losses?

    The plasmonic propagation losses make up slightly more than half of the total losses.

    What technology enables your improved performance?

    Our modulators are based on the plasmonic-organic-hybrid (POH) platform. This combines plasmonic wave guiding with organic second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. In plasmonics, light is guided as a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) at metal-insulator interfaces. This enables light confinement well below the diffraction limit, which results in an enhanced light-matter interaction.

    What advantage is your product offering compared to established technologies?

    The POH platform combines advantages from organic NLO materials and plasmonic slot waveguides. This means, our modulators offer linear phase modulation, ultrafast speed, high nonlinearities, subdiffraction confinement of light, enhanced light-matter interaction leading to voltage-length products one order of magnitude smaller than photonics, small RC time constants, and reduced plasmonic losses.

    Where are your modulators fabricated?

    Our modulators are designed, fabricated, assembled and tested in Switzerland.

    What products do you offer?

    On module level, we offer a packaged MZM. On chip level, or pigtailed, we offer a large palette of modulator types: Phase modulators, un-/balanced MZM and IQ modulators. Feel free to contact us for specific ideas.

    How much does one Polariton MZM module cost?

    As we tailor very specific products to your demand, there is no fixed price. Our sales team is always happy to discuss your needs and give you more details.

    Do you offer accompanying services?

    We do offer on-site support service. We are also available for demonstrations. Furthermore, our team of experienced experts in optical communication offers their help on a consulting level.

  • How to Characterize Insertion Loss

    Insertion loss (IL) is the ratio between optical input power and optical output power of a device under test (DUT). For a modulator it is of interest to measure the IL for different wavelengths to characterize its optical broadband behavior.

    How to Measure 𝑉π Employing Overmodulation

    The voltage 𝑉π needed for a phase shift of π is an important figure of merit for the performance of an optical modulator. One method to measure 𝑉_π for a Mach-Zehnder modulator is through low radio frequencies giving a close approximation for the value at DC. This is a leaflet to help you become more knowledgeable about the concept of 𝑉π and how to measure it.


    ETH Zürich and Polariton Technologies Ltd., in an effort to collaborate and share knowledge to the world, joins forces and releases LabExT (short for Laboratory Experiment Tool). LabExT is a software environment for quick and easy automated testing of Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs).
    The tool is free, written in Python 3.8 and uses the I/O API VISA through pyvisa. We invite you to collaborate as well and spread the word about LabExT!

    Visit the GitHub repo of the project: 
    Or checkout the online documentation at
    See the full explanatory video: Youtube

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Polariton Technologies AG
c/o ETH Zürich
Postfach 9000
8803 Rüschlikon


We are revolutionizing our future communication network and contributing to the world through research, scientific accuracy and our very own set of values that we do not compromise.

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