Author: polariton

All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale

All-plasmonic Mach Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale


Haffner, Christian, et al. “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale.” Nature Photonics 9.8 (2015): 525-528.


Abstract:

Optical modulators encode electrical signals to the optical domain and thus constitute a key element in high-capacity communication links. Ideally, they should feature operation at the highest speed with the least power consumption on the smallest footprint, and at low cost. Unfortunately, current technologies fall short of these criteria. Recently, plasmonics has emerged as a solution offering compact and fast devices. Yet, practical implementations have turned out to be rather elusive. Here, we introduce a 70 GHz all-plasmonic Mach Zehnder modulator that fits into a silicon waveguide of 10 μm length. This dramatic reduction in size by more than two orders of magnitude compared with photonic Mach Zehnder modulators results in a low energy consumption of 25 fJ per bit up to the highest speeds. The technology suggests a cheap co-integration with electronics.

Haffner, Christian

Plasmonic circuit realizing the Mach–Zehnder modulator

Full Image

a, Colourized SEM image of the MZM components. The suspended bridge enables electrical control of the device. b, Measured (symbols) and simulated (dashed lines) optical power transfer function versus applied voltage. The simulations indicate a best fit for a material with a nonlinear coefficient of 180 pm V–1.

Read full article

Continue reading

Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale

Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale


Haffner, Christian, et al. “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale.” Proceedings of the IEEE 104.12 (2016): 2362-2379.


Abstract:

Complementing plasmonic slot waveguides with highly nonlinear organic materials has rendered a new generation of ultracompact active nanophotonic components that are redefining the state of the art. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of this so-called plasmonic- organic-hybrid (POH) platform. Starting from simple phase shifters to the most compact IQ modulators, we introduce key devices of high-speed data communications. For instance, all-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) are reviewed and long-term prospects are discussed. This kind of modulator already features unique properties such as a small footprint (<; 20 μm 2 ), a large electro-optic bandwidth (> 110 GHz), a small energy consumption (~25 fJ/b), a large extinction ratio (> 25 dB) in combination with a record small voltage-length product of 40 Vμm. Finally, as an example for seamless integration we introduce novel plasmonic IQ modulators. With such modulators we show the generation of advanced modulation formats (QPSK, 16-QAM) on footprints as small as 10 μm × 75 μm. This demonstration ultimately shows how plasmonics can be used to control both phase and amplitude of an optical carrier on the microscale with reasonably low losses.

Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale

Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale

Full Image

Artistic view of different organic modulator technologies. (a) Organic waveguide modulators. Light (optical mode profile) is guided within a waveguide formed by the organic NLO material; the phase is modulated by the applied drive voltage USignal and drops off over the distance of a few micrometers as indicated by the radio-frequency (RF) field (gray). Such organic modulator devices have centimeter lengths. (b) SOH modulators have submillimeter lengths. Here, the electrical field drops only over the slot filled with the organic material. However, the performance is still limited as the diffraction limit forbids complete confinement of light to the slot. (c) This can be overcome by the POH approach, which is not diffraction limited and enables modulator lengths of only several micrometers.

READ FULL ARTICLE

Continue reading

High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer

High-speed plasmonic electro optical modulator in a single metal layer



Abstract:

Plasmonics provides a possible route to overcome both the speed limitations of electronics and the critical dimensions of photonics. We present an all-plasmonic  electro-optical modulator (116–gigabits per second) in which all the elements—the vertical grating couplers, splitters, polarization rotators, and active section with phase shifters—are included in a single metal layer. The device can be realized on any smooth substrate surface and operates with low energy consumption. Our results show that plasmonics is indeed a viable path to an ultracompact, highest-speed, and low-cost technology that might find many applications in a wide range of fields of sensing and communications because it is compatible with and can be placed on a wide variety of materials.

READ FULL ARTICLE

Related product

Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator 110 GHz C-Band

Features

  • C-band operation
  • 3 dB electro-optical bandwidth >110 GHz
  • Lumped, low-capacitance RF design
  • Compact form factor

Contact us

Continue reading

Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ

Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ


Hössbacher, Claudia, et al. “Plasmonic modulator with> 170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ.” Optics Express 25.3 (2017): 1762-1768.


Abstract:

We demonstrate a plasmonic Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator with a flat frequency response exceeding 170 GHz. The modulator comprises two phase modulators exploiting the Pockels effect of an organic electro-optic material in plasmonic slot waveguides. We further show modulation at 100 GBd NRZ and 60 GBd PAM-4. The electrical drive signals were generated using a 100 GSa/s digital to analog converter (DAC). The high-speed and small-scale devices are relevant for next-generation optical interconnects.

Plasmonic modulator with 170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ

Plasmonic circuit realizing the Mach–Zehnder modulator

Fig. 5 Eye diagrams and BERs measured at (a) 100 GBd NRZ, (b) 50 GBd PAM-4 (line rate 100 Gbit/s) and (c) 60 GBd PAM-4 (line rate 120 Gbit/s). The eye diagrams were resampled after equalization with a raised cosine shape that resembles the low-pass characteristic of the system.

READ FULL ARTICLE

Continue reading

Reduced Equalization Needs of 100 GHz Bandwidth Plasmonic Modulators

Reduced Equalization Needs of 100 GHz Bandwidth Plasmonic Modulators


Baeuerle, Benedikt, et al. “Reduced equalization needs of 100 GHz bandwidth plasmonic modulators.” Journal of Lightwave Technology 37.9 (2019): 2050-2057.

Abstract:

As bit rates of optical interconnects increase, a large amount of complicated signal conditioning is needed to compensate for the insufficient bandwidth of current modulators. In this paper, we evaluate the reduced equalization requirements of high-bandwidth P. modulators in short-reach transmission experiments. It is shown that transmission of 100 Gbit/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and 112 Gbit/s pulse-amplitude modulation-4 over 1 km and 2 km distance is possible without any receiver equalization. At higher bit-rates, such as 120 Gbit/s NRZ, data transmission is demonstrated over 500 m with reduced receiver equalization requirements. Transmission up to 200 Gbit/s over 1 km is also shown with more complex receiver equalization. The reduced complexity of the receiver digital signal processing is attributed to a flat frequency response of at least 108 GHz of the plasmonic modulators. All single wavelength transmissions have been performed at 1540 nm in standard single mode fiber.

Reduced Equalization Needs of 100 GHz Bandwidth Plasmonic Modulators

Reduced Equalization Needs of 100 GHz Bandwidth Plasmonic Modulators

READ FULL ARTICLE

Continue reading

Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre wireless link

Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre–wireless link


Salamin, Yannick, et al. “Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre–wireless link.” Nature photonics 12.12 (2018): 749-753.


Abstract:

To cope with the high bandwidth requirements of wireless applications1, carrier frequencies are shifting towards the millimetre-wave and terahertz bands. Conversely, data is normally transported to remote wireless antennas by optical fibres.

Therefore, full transparency and flexibility to switch between optical and wireless domains would be desirable. Here, we demonstrate a direct wireless-to-optical receiver in a transparent optical link. We successfully transmit 20 and 10 Gbit s−1 over wireless distances of 1 and 5 m, respectively, at a carrier frequency of 60 GHz.

Key to the breakthrough is a plasmonic mixer directly mapping the wireless information onto optical signals. The plasmonic scheme with its subwavelength feature and pronounced field confinement provides a built-in field enhancement of up to 90,000 over the incident field in an ultra-compact and complementary metal-oxide–semiconductor compatible structure. The plasmonic mixer is not limited by electronic speed and thus compatible with future terahertz technologies.

Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre wireless link

Microwave plasmonic mixer in a transparent fibre–wireless link

Deploying the fibre-to-the-home can be costly. One possible scenario to reduce the cost, while still providing high-capacity connectivity for the end user, is to use virtual fibres (red beams) for the last few metres. Here, optical fibres (yellow lines) are deployed to the residential area either underground or aboveground using existing cable platforms. Lamp posts located close to the houses could host optical-to-wireless converters for the downstream data (red dashed arrow) and wireless-to-optical converters (plasmonic mixer) for the upstream data (red arrow). A direct converter could very simply and cost efficiently map the wireless signal onto a common laser signal, which then can be routed back to the central office. PD, photodiode; c.w., continuous wave.

READ FULL ARTICLE

Continue reading

500 GHz plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics

500 GHz plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics



Broadband electro-optic intensity modulators are essential to convert electrical signals to the optical domain. The growing interest in terahertz wireless applications demands modulators with frequency responses to the sub-terahertz range, high power handling, and very low nonlinear distortions, simultaneously. However, a modulator with all those characteristics has not been demonstrated to date. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that plasmonic modulators do not trade-off any performance parameter, featuring—at the same time—a short length of tens of micrometers, record-high flat frequency response beyond 500 GHz, high power handling, and high linearity, and we use them to create a sub-terahertz radio-over-fiber analog optical link.
 
These devices have the potential to become a new tool in the general field of microwave photonics, making the sub-terahertz range accessible to, e.g., 5G wireless communications, antenna remoting, Internet of Things, sensing, and more.

500 GHz plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics

500 GHz plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator enabling sub-THz microwave photonics

FIG. 1. (a) A THz wireless communication scenario. (b) At the remote antenna unit (RAU), THz wireless signals are received by an antenna and converted to the optical domain to be transported over a radio-over-fiber analog link. A modulator with sub-THz bandwidth, high linearity, and high-power handling is needed to encode the THz signal onto an optical carrier with high fidelity. Inset: (b1) micrograph of a plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator with a plasmonic phase modulator in each arm; (b2) image of the 120 nm-wide, 20 μm-long phase modulator slot waveguide

READ FULL ARTICLE

Related product

Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator 110 GHz C-Band

Features

  • C-band operation
  • 3 dB electro-optical bandwidth >110 GHz
  • Lumped, low-capacitance RF design
  • Compact form factor

Contact us

Continue reading

Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array

Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array


Koch, Ueli, et al. “Ultra-compact terabit plasmonic modulator array.” Journal of Lightwave Technology 37.5 (2019): 1484-1491.


Abstract:

A new plasmonic transmitter solution offering 0.8 Tbit/s on an ultra-compact 90 μm × 5.5 μm footprint is introduced. It comprises a densely arranged four-channel plasmonic phase modulator array that directly interconnects an optical fiber array. Each plasmonic modulator features high-index grating couplers-for direct and efficient conversion from a fiber mode to a plasmonic slot mode and vice versa-and a plasmonic waveguide-for efficient high-speed modulation. The individual devices achieve data rates of 200 Gbit/s with a symbol rate of 100 GBd.
 
Electrical and optical crosstalk between neighboring modulators were found to have no significant influence on the data modulation experiment. The modulator array has been tested in a 100 GBd experiment with signals at a single wavelength (mimicking a space division multiplexing scheme) and at different wavelengths (mimicking a wavelength division multiplexing experiment).

Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array

Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array

Fig. 2.

Plasmonic phase modulator concept for a single device. (a) 3-dimensional rendering of the plasmonic phase modulator consisting of high-index silicon grating couplers (dark blue), a gold plasmonic slot waveguide (gold) and the cores of an optical fiber array (grey). The inset shows the facet of the fiber array. Neighboring cores with a 12 µm pitch were used to couple light into and out of the modulator. (b) Cross-section along the device showing the grating coupler geometry and schematic of the vertically incident fiber mode that is converted to a horizontally propagating plasmonic mode. (c) Cross-section across the plasmonic slot waveguide which is filled by a nonlinear organic electro-optic material (purple). In this configuration, light and electrical signal are both confined to the plasmonic slot leading to strong field enhancement, high field overlap and therefore strongest light-matter interaction.

READ FULL ARTICLE

Continue reading

Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption

Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption


Heni, Wolfgang, et al. “Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption.” Nature communications 10.1 (2019): 1-8.


Abstract:

Coherent optical communications provides the largest data transmission capacity with the highest spectral efficiency and therefore has a remarkable potential to satisfy today’s ever-growing bandwidth demands. It relies on so-called in-phase/quadrature (IQ) electro-optic modulators that encode information on both the amplitude and the phase of light. Ideally, such IQ modulators should offer energy-efficient operation and a most compact footprint, which would allow high-density integration and high spatial parallelism. Here, we present compact IQ modulators with an active section occupying a footprint of 4 × 25 µm × 3 µm, fabricated on the silicon platform and operated with sub-1-V driving electronics.

The devices exhibit low electrical energy consumptions of only 0.07 fJ bit−1 at 50 Gbit s−1, 0.3 fJ bit−1 at 200 Gbit s−1, and 2 fJ bit−1 at 400 Gbit s−1. Such IQ modulators may pave the way for application of IQ modulators in long-haul and short-haul communications alike.

Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption

READ FULL ARTICLE

Continue reading

Rolando Hess

Rolando Hess

Rolando is a seasoned business manager and has founded companies in finance, high tech and international business expansion. He has a background in optoelectronics (PhD ETHZ) – ultrafast all optical modulators, finance (Credit Suisse) and an MBA for Sustainability Entrepreneurship and Innovation (ESCP). He worked more than 15 years in telecommunication companies (Alcatel, Lucent, Nokia) in different positions – product marketing, international business development, mergers & acquisitions, processes improvement, legal, government and public affairs. He supports startups in the high-tech domain.

We listen


Polariton Technologies AG
c/o ETH Zürich
Postfach 9000
8803 Rüschlikon
Switzerland
hello@polariton.ch

Mission


We are revolutionizing our future communication network and contributing to the world through research, scientific accuracy and our very own set of values that we do not compromise.

Sneak Peek


Your subscription could not be saved. Please try again.
Please confim your email in your inbox

We use Sendinblue as our marketing platform. By Clicking below to submit this form, you acknowledge that the information you provided will be transferred to Sendinblue for processing in accordance with their terms of use