The future powered by Polariton

The plasmonics modulator technology has been developed for more than 6 years at ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Key to our technology is the coupling of light with electrons at a metal surface. Light is coupled to the metal surface as Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs). This way we are able to confine light below the diffraction limit.




Energy Consumption

Market Volume



0.01 mm

>500 GHz

10 fJ/bit

Very high volume

First products 2021

Lithium Niobate

100 mm

35 GHz

1000 fJ/bit

Low volume

In operation for > 20 years

Silicon Photonics

5 mm

40 GHz

100 fJ/bit

High volume

First products emerging

We are Polariton

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    Knowledge center

    All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale

    Authors: C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner & J. Leuthold.

    Published: 27 July 2015 Nature Photonics volume 9, pages525–528 (2015)

    Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale

    Christian HaffnerWolfgang HeniYuriy FedoryshynArne JostenBenedikt BaeuerleClaudia HoessbacherYannick Salamin and more

    C. Haffner et al., “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 2362-2379, Dec. 2016, doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2016.2547990.

    High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer

    Masafumi Ayata, Yuriy Fedoryshyn, Wolfgang Heni, Benedikt Baeuerle, Arne Josten, Marco Zahner, Ueli Koch, Yannick Salamin, Claudia Hoessbacher, Christian Haffner, Delwin L. Elder, Larry R. Dalton, Juerg Leuthold. 

    Science  03 Nov 2017:
    Vol. 358, Issue 6363, pp. 630-632
    DOI: 10.1126/science.aan5953

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